Lithium is a very important chemical of the periodic table. Its symbol is Li with an atomic number of 3. The name lithium is derived from the Greek word ‘Lithios’ having meaning ‘stone’. This element of the periodic table has a silvery appearance. Lithium has many important uses both in neutral form and in ion form. This is used in aircraft and also used for mental health. In ion form, lithium-ion batteries are very important.
Now here is a question that comes in mind is ‘what is an ion and how lithium-ion forms’?
An ion is a form of an element in which it has a net electric charge on it, either positive or negative. This electric charge is due to the loss or gain of electrons. Lithium-ion is formed by the loss of one electron thus increasing the positive charge on the lithium atom making it positively charged ion.
This is the basic symbol for a neutral lithium atom.
A cell and a battery are different from each other. A cell is a single electrochemical unit while a battery is a group of cells arranged in series or in parallel form. The lithium-ion battery is a type of a rechargeable battery with a wide number of applications. In a lithium-ion battery, these ions navigate from the negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal during discharge and moves in the opposite direction when charging. These batteries have 80-90% charging efficiency. Lithium batteries can be a great way for energy storage in portable devices because these batteries are offering high energy and power densities. This Lithium Battery Equipment is gaining importance in electric vehicles industries also due to their renewable choice. These batteries should be used in safe temperature limits during charging. These batteries fail on rare occasions but these failures cause catastrophic damage. Overcharging of the lithium battery can cause serious damage to the equipment in which it is used.
The temperature limits of the lithium batteries can be improved by the use of high-temperature slip rings. The slip ring is an electric motor that continues and regulates the flow of electric charge from a static interface to the rotating interface. One type of slip ring is a high-temperature slip ring. This slip ring has many applications in various fields including its use in lithium batteries. Use of this slip ring improves the temperature bearing efficiency of the lithium battery. High-temperature slip rings can bear temperature up to 250° Celsius and can work properly even at such a high temperature.
The gold material is used in the contacts of high-temperature slip rings. As gold has a very high melting temperature of 1064° Celsius thus its use in high-temperature slip rings increases its efficiency and reliability.
The first lithium battery was designed by British scientist “Stanley Whittingham” lithium battery has two electrodes one anode (positive) and one cathode (negative). Charging and discharging take place in the presence of a liquid usually named as an electrolyte. Electrolyte act as a conducting medium that helps conducts lithium ions. These batteries are also called swing batteries because lithium-ion moves back and forth between two electrodes.
The electrolyte used in these batteries is mostly lithium salts. Sometimes solid electrolytes are also used in these batteries. During charging of lithium batteries, the external voltage is applied that is greater than the voltage produced by the battery itself. This voltage is greater to force current between the electrodes.
Different material is used in cathodes and anodes. Cathodes are usually made of LiCoO2. Lithium batteries offer a longer lifetime than other batteries. The estimated lifetime of a lithium-ion battery is two to three years. Batteries should be used carefully and should be recharged even the half battery is used. It totally is discharging the lithium-ion battery every time reduced its lifetime and also its efficiency. Lithium-ion battery equipment offers a great number of benefits like
- High energy density
- Self-discharging even if it is not connected is slow offering long battery timing
- They require low maintenance for their proper working
- A wide number of different types are available
- One most important and beneficial aspect of the lithium battery equipment is these equipment are environmentally friendly. These batteries contain less toxic materials than other batteries that have lead or cadmium. Lead and cadmium batteries are very dangerously affecting our environments. Metals used in lithium batteries can be recycled easily and are safe for landfills.
Lithium-ion batteries are so widely used that these are even present in portable devices of daily use like mobile phones, laptops, computer, etc. These are also used in tools like drills and saws. One if the important application of these batteries is in automobiles. Batteries mostly used in cars are lithium-ion batteries. These are also present in electric motorbikes, wheelchairs. Lithium battery equipment is also used in the telecommunication industry.
Lithium batteries also have some disadvantages too.
- These batteries should not be overheated or overcharged
- These batteries may suffer thermal run away
- Protection is required for these batteries
- Charging current should be maintained to safety limits
- One disadvantage is of aging. These batteries are often cycled dependent and usually work for only 500-1000 charge and discharge cycles
- Lithium-ion batteries cannot be taken from one place to another because of the safety issues even in the airplanes.
- One more major disadvantage of these batteries is their cost. These are more costly to manufacture than other batteries like Nickel Cadmium battery
- These are temperature sensitive
Temperature bearing capability of these batteries can be increased by the use of high temperature slip ring thus increasing the applications of these batteries in wide areas even with a high temperature.